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outline the fourth movement of mahler symphony 1

Outline the form of the Fourth movement and comment upon Mahler’s conventional and unconventional treatment of the material The fourth and final movement of a symphony is like the first movement in its form. The form conventionally followed is sonata form, with an exposition, development and recapitulation, but of course with less new material than the first movement, more a combination of the material already heard. Mahler’s fourth movement of his First symphony begins with a 55 bar introduction, which is also part of the exposition. This allows time for a build up and an introduction of any new material before the main body of the movement. The introduction is in F minor, with no modulation until well into the exposition. The themes of the movement are introduced early, with a story of a battle, when preparing for a conflict. The first new idea is based on ‘Dantes Dell Inferno’ – hell, this is introduced in bar 7, in the trumpets and trombones. The second idea is also introduced early, in bar 19 by the trumpets. There were a few devices used by Mahler to achieve a battle-like effect. There is a section which appears angry, by the use of quin-duplet quavers, and lots of incisive chords, at bar 14. Double stopping is an example of a device used in the orchestration of the piece, as Mahler tended to push the instruments to their limits to achieve the best effect. Double stopping is used in the viola and cello in bar 1, which also refers to movement 1. In bar 32, Mahler varies the original rhythmic idea by augmenting the triplet quavers to crotchets. The first ‘tutti’ chord is not until bar 25, halfway through the introduction. This delay of using the full orchestra together is another example of Mahler’s unconventional orchestration. The exposition starts at bar 55 and lasts until bar 253. The form of it is – 1st subject group (bars 55-143); 1st part of transition (bars...

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