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MugnainiDr. Ralph GilmoreIntroduction to Philosophy26 April 1999Explanation and Analysis of Stoic PhilosophyStoicism is, without a doubt, one of the most widely misunderstood schools of Philosophy ever established and followed by a wide number of people. The common opinion of Stoic adherents is that they are merely cold, somber individuals dedicated to the idea that happiness is evil, emotion is to be avoided at all costs and pleasure is wicked. Although they do stress control over strong emotions and that pleasure is not the sole end of life, this is a gross misunderstanding of Stoicism. According to Dr. Zeno Breuninger, "Stoics believe a person is born with everything he needs." The Stoic seeks to lead a life at peace with himself and the world around him, governed at all times by moderation and Virtue. Stoicism was founded by Zeno of Citium 331-232 BC), who was a merchant until a shipwreck found him in Athens where he began to study many schools of philosophy(Fieser). He was followed By Cleanthes 331-233 BC) who, originally an athlete, was considered not brilliant but hardworking. Neither of these, however, left any surviving writings. It is only due to the writings of Chryssipus 281-208 BC), the third head of the ancient Athenian Stoics, that we have any knowledge of the teachings of the early Stoics(Ecole; Mining Co.) Later Stoics include the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Seneca, and these have left several works that outline Stoic philosophy, especially Ethics. Perhaps most well known are the Meditations of Aurelius, one of the most well known of Stoic writings. Stoicism is still alive today, revived by men such as Dr. Breuninger, who strive for virtuous life through Stoic teachings(International). The Stoics, especially Chryssipus, altered the very logical form commonly used by Aristotle and others. The If-Then statement used by the Stoics was a replacement of the form used by Aristotle. Where Aristotle w...

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