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ethical issues in counseling

countertransference and the expert therapist, this study looks at how beginning therapists rate five factors theorized to be important in countertransference management: (I) anxiety management, (2) conceptualizing skills, (3) empathic ability, (4) self-insight and (5) self-integration. Using an adaptation of the
Countertransference Factors Inventory (CFI) designed for the previously
mentioned studies, 48 beginning therapists (34 women, 14 men) rated 50
statements as to their value in managing countertransference. Together, these
statements make up subscales representing the five countertransference
management factors. Beginners rated the factors similarly to experts, both rating
self-insight and self-integration highest. In looking at the personal characteristics
which might influence one's rating of the factors, males and females rated
self-insight and self-integration highest. As months in personal and/or group
psychotherapy went up, the factors' ratings went down, and an even stronger
negative correlation was found with age. Generally, beginners rated the factors
higher than the experts. Beginners who are older and/or have had more therapy
rated the factors more like the experts.
The word countertransference was coined by Sigmund Freud in approxirnately the
year 1901, at the dawning of psychoanalysis. In classical psychoanalysis,
transference was seen as a distortion in the therapeutic relationship which occurred
when the client unconsciously misperceived the therapist as having personality
characteristics similar to someone in his/her past, while countertransference
referred to the analyst's unconscious, neurotic reaction to the patient's transference
(Freud, 1910/1959). Freud believed that countertransference impedes therapy, and
that the analyst must recognize his/her countertransference in order to overcome it.
In recent years, some schools of psychotherapy have expanded the definition of

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