395-410). Skills learning and knowledge of results effects are considered in the two discussions that follow this introduction.
Learning theory, concepts, and styles affect the acquisition of motor movement skills (Wulf & Schmidt, 1989, pp. 748-757). Learning theory applicable to motor movement skills acquisition is a composite of behavioristic and cognitive concepts.
Behavioristic human development involves the concept of conditioning. The classical concept of conditioning is that developed by Ivan Pavlov (Turner & Helms, 1991, pp. 36-38). B. F. Skinner advanced the behaviorist approach through the development of the concepts of operant conditioning and reinforcement (pp. 10-12).
The behaviorist theory Skinner is, essentially, a drive theory. While it is a drive theory, Skinner's theory has also provided the base upon which many of the effective content and process human development approaches have been developed.
Skinner's behaviorism theory is directly related to the process of learning (Maslow, 1966, p. 13). By learning is meant the process by which an individual is able to change his or her behavior in some constructive manner (Skinner, 1953, pp. 59-61). Three basic theories of learning are trial and error, conditioned response, and insight.
With the trial and error approach, the individual learns by attempting diffe