Rubin, B. (1990). Islamic fundamentalism in Egypt. New York: St. Martin's Press.
All justice-related issues involving personal affairs and family matters of Moslems residing in Iran (a description that encompasses almost the entire--94 percent--population of the country) are decided by Shari`ah Courts within the parameters of Islamic law (Hunter, 1994, p. 776). In Islamic communities generally and in Iran specifically, the only social unit recognized by the state is the family (Roberts, 1991, p. 77).
Violations of public order in Iran are governed by the Criminal Code adopted in 1979 (Hunter, 1994, p. 776). There is no relationship between this criminal code and the concepts of criminal justice prevailing in the United States. The Iranian criminal code emphasizes the punishment of offenders. Retaliation against offenders, as opposed rehabilitation of offenders is the focus of the Iranian criminal code. This approach to criminal justice is inconsistent with the approach to the administration of criminal justice prevailing in the United States.
Public prosecutions are handled by procurators assigned directly to each court (Knudten, 1992, pp. 15-22). These individuals initiate public prosecutions and represent the state in such prosecutions. The President of the Supreme Court and the Prosecutor General are appointed by the country's spiritual leader. The Ayatollah Khameini followed the Ayatollah Khomeini in this role on the death of the latter. The Supreme Court has 16 branches.
Hiro, D. (1990). Holy wars: The rise of Islamic fundamentalism. New York: Routledge Publishing Co.