Fundamental Aspects of Rational Thought
According to Ward (2000), rational thought has certain fixed aspects. First, it involves a perception of entailment relationships or relationships in which one proposition either imposes, involves, or implies another proposition as a necessary accompaniment or result. For example, 3 x 2 = 2 x 3 stands as an entailment relationship.
Second, Ward (2000) states that rational thought involves reasoning from plausible premises that contain no non sequiturs which are inferences that do not follow from the premises. Third, Ward also states that rational thought utilizes processes of formal reasoning. However, he notes that, unlike formal reasoning which can be brought to bear upon any proposition, even proposition that are in discord with reality or are about ˘unreal÷ objects or things, rational thought is said to be in congruence with external reality. One problem here is that there have been many philosophical arguments in favor of reality existing merely as a personal construct and therefore