The economic and cultural effects of the Korean War on Inch'on during the immediate post-war period (August 1953-December 1955) are covered in the "Inch'on: Post-War" discussion.
This discussion of culture and geography also includes brief references to the history of Inch'on and considerations of the structure of government in the city and the relevance of Inch'on to the greater Korean economy. The period January 1948 through May 1950 is emphasized.
Inch'on is located on the west coast of the Korean Peninsula at approximately 1260 east longitude, 370 north latitude. Inch'on is the gateway to the South Korean capital of Seoul, which is located 37 kilometers due east inland from Inch'on.
The settlement of the Inch'on area occurred in 18 B.C. At that time, the settlement was names Michuhol by its founder King Biryu and served as the capital of Baikje. The name of the settlement changed with successive rulers of the area, becoming Maisohol under the rule of Koguryo, Sosonghyon during the Unified Silla, Kyongwonbu during the Koryo era, Inch'on Kun under King Taijong of the Choson dynasty, and Inch'on Bu under King Kojong following the opening of the port in 1883. Inch'on Bu became Inch'on in 1949, when the community was upgraded to city status within the Korean governmental structure ("Brief History of Inch'on" 1). As a city in 1950, Inch'on consisted of layers of administrative sub-districts, the largest of which were kus