The invasion was led by hundreds of tanks, which served as the vanguard of 90,000 North Korean infantry soldiers (Appleman 61).
South Korea had not anticipated the invasion, and its divisions, which were no match for those from the north in the best of situations, were at only half-strength, because the remainder had been granted weekend leave. The lightly armed and leave-depleted South Korean units could not withstand the onslaught from the north, and the North Korean army easily smashed through the South Korean perimeter defense (Appleman 74).
A key to the success of the amphibious landing by United States forces at Inch'on was the neutralizing of the North Korean artillery that was emplaced on Wolmi Island, which is located in the entrance to Inch'on harbor. Wolmi Island is in a highly strategic location that permits surface-to-surface artillery located on the island to deny passage to naval vessels to Inch'on. Two days prior to the Inch'on Landing, six United States naval vessels were sent into the passage to Inch'on to draw fire from the North Korean batteries located on Wolmi Island, as a means of determining the location of the batteries so that they could be neutralized before the amphibious landing force arrived on 15 September 1950. The operation conducted by United States naval forces to neutralize the batteries on Wolmi Island was successful.
The United States Army, the United States Navy, and the United States Marines all protested to General MacArthur against to plans for the Inch'on Landing. The Navy was concerned that the Inch'on harbor was so narrow that little room for maneuver was available. The Navy also was concerned about the shallowness of the Inch'on harbor, which required a high tide of at least 30 feet to enable the naval ships to maneuver safely in the harbor area. The only day in September that such a tide would occur was the 15th, and the landing had to occur at the precise time of high t...
Historical Examination of Inchon, Republic of Korea During 1948-1955. (2000, January 01). In LotsofEssays.com. Retrieved 19:16, November 25, 2014, from http://www.collegetermpapers.com/viewpaper/1303342951.html