In other words, people can learn something merely by observing its occurrence. According to Bandura (1977), the inclusion of this cognitive dimension to Behavior Theory has resulted in a:
. . .conception of human functioning that neither casts people into the role of powerless objects controlled by environmental forces nor free agents who can become whatever they choose. Both people and their environments are reciprocal determinants of each other. (p.vii)
The Behavioral approach has repeatedly been used in the educational setting. One area of education which places a heavy reliance on behavioral/cognitive-behavioral techniques and strategies has been that of special education (Cohen, 1987). In this regard, Horn and Warren (1987) studied the effectiveness of a behavioral program in teaching motor skills to a small sample of children with severe and multiple disabilities.
The authors found that the program increased both the frequency and the duration of the target motor skills. In addition, the newly acquired skills were found to generalize to other settings. Moreover, in a review of several studies using behavioral methods to teach learning disabled children, Lerner (1981) has reported that research conducted on the use of operant conditioning and behavior modificatio