Learning the Grammar of a Second Language
e. how affective variables relate to the process of second language acquisition. However, Krashen's thinking lost some of its assurance with the passing of time and the growing opposition of his colleagues. Krashen came to believe that learning grammar "does have an effect, but this effect is peripheral and fragile . . . Conscious knowledge of grammar is available only as a monitor, or editor" ("Another" 409). Krashen's "Comprehensible Input Hypothesis" is the foundation of his edifice. To Krashen, it is not the analysis and synthesis of form which lead to language competency, but the inductive apprehension of meaningful contents. Consequently, language is neither "taught" nor "learned"; it is "acquired". By 1981, the author vacillated somewhat and concluded that "teaching certainly can help. Its primary function is to supply comprehensible input for those who cannot get it elsewhere" (Second 37). He admitted that direct instruction on specific rules has a measurable impact on tests that focus the performer on form, but the effect is short-lived (e.g. Harley, 1989; White, 1991). Krashen acknowledges that "formal grammar teaching can be done when students know the limits of conscious grammatical knowledge: When they know it is not the major source of second language competence" ("Another" 410). In other words, grammar may be taught in extremis if it replaces "natural

    Some topics in this essay  
    Instruction Obviously | Input Hypothesis | Madsen Hilferty | L2 L1 | L2 First-language | L2 L3 | Chomsky Strozer | Scientific Management | Lightbown Pienemann | Stevick Eisenstein | language acquisition | formal grammar | formal grammar instruction | grammar instruction | comprehensible input | tesol quarterly | foreign language | adult learn | l1 l2 | celce-murcia 406 | attention form | grammar taught learned | teach student method | quarterly 27 1993 | quarterly 262 1992 |  
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