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Crops of Immigration Reform

9V. A. Canto, and F. E. Udwadia, "The Effect of Immigration Quotas on the Average Quality of Migrating Labor and Income Distribution," Southern Economic Journal, 52 (January 1986): 785793.

10D. Hensley, "The Impacts of Immigration Reform on the California Economy," Labor Law Journal, 40 (August 1989): 527535.

11S. J. Torok, "U.S.Mexican Trade in Winter Vegetables Affected By Control of Immigration," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 68 (May 1987): 246260.

the fields.12 These critics also contended that the actual wages earned by braceros (who were typically paid on a piece rate basis) were far higher than the minimum wage, and were higher than those of domestic agricultural workers paid on a piece rate basis.13 The supporters of the Bracero Program charged further that organized labor was the real opponent of the program, and that this opposition was based on the face that Public Law 78 prohibited organization of the braceros.14 Once again, similar arguments were heard in the mid1980s, and, once again, the arguments fell on deaf ears in the Reagan Administration and in the Congress. If the arguments were valid, again, one would expect the American agricultural labor market to enter a period of turmoil, and, in turn, for American agricultural producers who were heavily dependent upon stoop labor to lose market share to foreign producers of labor intensive crops. Once again, these outcomes did occur. The American agricultural did enter into a sustained period of disequilibrium.15 In turn, as stated earlier in this chapter, the market share of American agricultural producers of labor intensive crops shrank, and much of this shrinkage has been ((((((((((

12"Where Braceros Once Worked," Business Week, 16 January 1965, 3233.

13"AFLCIO Organizers Go After Farm Workers," Business Week, 24 September 1960, 5054.

14"Labor," 274; R. B. Craig, The Bracero Program (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1971), 48....

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