According to El-Islam (1983), when a female lives in a household that identifies with traditional values, yet she herself believes in Western values, there are arguments over how Kuwaiti women in general and she in particular ought to behave. As these arguments escalate, more and more family support is withdrawn from these women. This loss of family support then causes sadness and grief and generates depression.
(3) Giving sons more freedom than daughters.
Locus of control (the extent to which one believes that the cause of their life circumstances is due to internal qualities, traits, or attributes or to external agents such as fate, luck, or significant others) has repeatedly been found to be associated with depressive illness. This point has been made by Davison and Neale (1982) who state that locus of control interacts with an individual's desired outcomes (e.g. such as receiving social reinforcement from one's family) such that:
In addition to tests of the study's research hypotheses, a number of subsidiary tests will be conducted in an effort to better understand findings overall. These subsidiary hypotheses will consist of the comparisons of all dependent measures (stress, locus of control, and depression) at both levels of Role Attitude as well as computations of correlations between all collected measures.
(4) The belief that parents have a right to arrange marriages for children of both sexes.
lder over younger is observed. The family offers security to its members in return for behavior that is harmonious with the cultural code. (El-Islam, 1983, p.321)
Approximately 40 females will serve as subjects in the study; 20 of these will be females who identify with the more liberal, Western notions of female role and 20 will be females who identify with the more traditional Middle Eastern notions of female role.
El-Islam, M.F., Malasi, T.H. & Abu-Dagga, S.I. (1988). Interparental differences in attitudes to cultural changes in Kuwait. Socia