As to "whether it is better to be loved more than feared, or feared more than loved . . . one ought to be both . . . but as it is difficult for the two to go together, it is much safer to be feared than loved" (Ebenstein 193). He observed that
men have less scruple in offending one who makes himself feared; for love is held by a chain of obligation which, men being selfish, is broken whenever it serves their purposes' but fear is maintained by a dread of punishment which never fails (Ebenstein 194).
Lest his readers draw the wrong lessons, Machiavelli urged leaders to be "cautious in believing and acting" . . . [and to] "proceed in a temperate manner with prudence and humanity" (Ebenstein 193). He particularly urged a prince not to "make himself feared in such a way that if he does not gain love, he at any rate avoids hatred" (Ebenstein 194).
Caesar was born into a fairly prosperous patrician family. He was exposed during his late childhood to the political conspiracies that enveloped early first century Rome. According to Duggan, he learned early that "politics was a dangerous business in which death was often the penalty of failure" (31). Caesar's illustrious military career in command of Roman legions began later after he was 42. He briefly displayed his courage as a young officer at the age of 18 with the Army in Greece. He then went on during the next two decades to a promising care