3). When it appeared that the United Nations missions to Somalia and the former Yugoslavia in particularly had run into serious difficulties, doubts arose concerning the United Nations' capability to perform its new roles effectively.
Peace-making and Peacekeeping. During the Cold War, the United Nations was prevented by the animosity of the two major superpowers from playing more than a marginal role in the modulation of great power conflicts. It did, however, play an important part in performing various peace-making and peacekeeping roles in Third World areas such as the Congo, Cyprus, Kashmir and the Arab-Israeli conflicts. Roberts & Benedict say that "the involvement of the UN . . . helped isolate conflicts from great power rivalry" (1994, Introduction, p. 33).
Some such efforts failed, notably in Sinai in 1967. In the Congo in the 1960s, "the first phase of UN peacekeeping had raised financial and constitutional problems that . . . nearly destroyed the UN" (Morphet, 1994, p. 200).
In Somalia, confusion as to the UN's mission, humanitarian aid v. nation building, led to mission creep and the overall UN and American efforts were at times poorly coordinated. In Bosnia, the European nations tended to pass the buck to the UN which took on tasks for which it was ill-suited. Morphet says that "peacekeeping is dependent on the polit