In the postwar era the standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union created a balance of power in which the avoidance of nuclear confrontation was of primary importance. In addition to changing the nature of the nuclear threat the breakup of the USSR has produced a world with the conflicting trends of increased "globalization" and increased "fragmentation" (Boutros-Ghali 87). Even as the world's economic, communications, and political systems become more tightly interwoven for many nations, other countries are breaking up under internal strains that were repressed when they were dominated by larger powers. Now, "with the dark shadows of the cold war receding, one can see that many conflicts are within nations, rather than between nations" (United Nations 229). In the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia ethnic conflicts are resurfacing after being held in check by the USSR for many decades. In the former colonies of Africa the unity that was at first sustained by liberation is breaking up under the pressures of underdevelopment. The result of this has been "an ever-burgeoning demand for helping hands from UN soldiers" (Weiss 223). But how can the UN justify interventions in the affairs of sovereign states?
During the Cold War the UN viewed security "as security of territory from external aggression, or as protection of national interests in foreign p