In the contemporary United States, the concentration of ethnic and racial population groups in specific locations within urban areas, the increased incidence of crime within neighborhoods of high ethnic and racial concentration (for whatever reason), and the tendency for police forces to be composed predominantly of individuals drawn from the majority Anglo population group combine to create even greater tensions between police departments and community areas of high ethnic and racial concentration (Kelling & Coles, 1996).
The demands placed upon police officers in American society are far more complex and difficult than were those placed on the police in an earlier era. Further, the potential for additional and significant changes in these demands over the coming ten years appears to be strong. The complex demands placed on police officers in contemporary American society be appreciated through a consideration of the following factors (Zhao & Thurman, 1997):
1. Police departments are expected, by society, to preserve order and to enforce the law. In accomplishing these objectives, police, at times, injure or, less often, kill offenders. When injury to or death of offenders occur, police officers are often condemned by many in society.
2. Police departments are expected, by society, to incarcerate offenders, and to pr