He defined theory as "a collection of principles, rules, methods, and procedures tried and checked by general experience" (p. 15). Fayol's theory consisted of two parts: (1) the elements, which described what managers did--plan, organize, command, coordinate, and control; and (2) the principles, which were guides on how to manage.
During the 1920s and 1930s, scientific management fell into the hands of "efficiency experts" who concentrated on the mechanical aspects of production. Critics of the movement pointed out that this approach neglected the elements of the psychological needs of workers and the sociological aspects of cooperation.
In the last fifty years, many disciplines have been active in making contributions to the development of management thought. The fields of public administration and business education have felt, more than any others, the impact of the diversified attack on current practices and past thought by disciplines that previously had little to offer the practicing manager. An early contributor to the psychology and sociology of management, Mary Parker Follett (1942), attempted to interpret classical management principles in terms of human factors. She proposed several principles as guides to management thinking, stressing cooperation in the early stages by direct contact of the responsible people concerned. Central to the thinking of these principles was the idea that management must continually adjust to