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Four Types of Market Orientation

Increased competition is seen during this phase as other companies seek to profit from the product. During the maturity phase, unit sales begin to decline, there is a saturation of competitive and substitute goods, and profit margins fall. During the decline phase, unit sales drop off significantly, competition lessens, and the product is eventually phased out of the market unless there is some type of intervention (O'Connor, 2002).

Production orientation is, as its name suggests, focused on the internal production process associated with the product. This is a take-it-or-leave-it approach to marketing in which the customer's needs and wants are scarcely considered ("Marketing Orientation" 10). The production process frames the marketing approach to the product, pricing and distribution; promotional activities are likely to focus on where consumers can purchase the product. Product features and price competition play little or no part in the production orientation.

Companies that have a production orientation focus their activities on manufacturing. They are interested in keeping their manufacturing costs down in order to maximize their profit and their internal efficiency. Indeed, the production orientation is an internal focus rather than an external focus. To some degree, these companies do not react to external forcescertainly not as frequently as companies with different orientations--but instead focus on process improvemen


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