Technical concerns also arise. Mammal cloning appears to have an "efficiency" rate of "approximately 2% of manipulated embryos, a number that seems not to be affected by the species used or the type of cell used as a nuclear donor." The pregnancies of cloned implants can be problematic, and the offspring may suffer from "a wide variety of abnormalities" (Iannaccone A469). In February 2003, for example, Dolly, cloned from adult sheep cells in 1996, was put down, suffering from diseases more typical of animals of more advanced age (Kolata A4). Meanwhile, in 2001, a group of researchers in Worcester, Mass., created what were said to be the first cloned human embryos for stem-cell research, but none of them developed beyond six cells (Johnson 34).
Some opponents of human reproductive cloning cite the "centrality of sexual recombination in mammal reproduction, and argue that it would be extremely difficult to predict either the viability or risks associated with gestating or being born a human clone" (McGee 268). Another objection to cloning is based on a more or less "corporate" critique of the process.
We worry that the market for women's eggs that would be created by this research will provide unethical incentives for women to undergo health-threatening hormone treatment and surgery. We are also concerned about the increasing bio-industrialization of life by the scientific community and life science companies; we are shocked and dismayed that clonal human embryos have been patented and declared to be human "inventions." We oppose efforts to reduce human life and its various parts and processes to the status of mere research tools, manufactured products, and utilities (Rifkin 23).
Advocates of therapeutic cloning argue that stem-cell research, aimed at using cell therapy to strengthen immunity and genetic makeup, should be conducted on embryonic stem cells, which are the most potent kind (Brown 651 passim). Some researchers say "the...
What is Cloning?. (1969, December 31). In LotsofEssays.com. Retrieved 19:35, April 18, 2015, from http://www.collegetermpapers.com/viewpaper/1303482232.html