Under charisma/inspirational approaches, the leader demonstrates a high degree of popularity or celebrity status and is held in high esteem by peers, subordinates and superiors alike. Typically, the charismatic leader is also visionary, courageous, value driven and serves as an agent of change within the organization. Transformational leaders who use individual stimulation exhibit a high level of awareness of current employee problems. Ways in which this awareness is created include life experience, the ability to handle ambiguity, the ability to handle complexity and uncertainty, and the demonstration of intellectual courage. The third type of transformational leader uses consideration for the individual, which is considered the final behavioral pattern of the transformational leader. Leaders who exhibit this trait understand their individual subordinates through one-to-one interaction. These leaders have a concern for and a belief in their individuals (Horn 2).
While many Americans believe that leaders are born, not made, or that circumstances may cause a particular individual to assume a leadership role that otherwise would escape him or her, many executives believe that leadership can be taught. In a recent study, 81 percent of chief information officers surveyed were of the opinion that leadership can be taught, and 47 percent have participated in leadership programs at their current employer ("Research" n.p.). It is this belief that leadership can be taught that has given rise to corporate leadership training as well as degrees in corporate leadership and organizational leadership at the college level.
Organizations are willing to spend a considerable amount of their resources in an effort to train their managers to become leaders. In 2000, it is estimated that more than $50 billion was spend on corporate leadership development programs (Ready & Conger 84). If organizations did not believe that they were receiving an...
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