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Robert Keohane and Robert Gilpin

11 In turn, Gilpin held that the sources of such rules of international conduct were "custom and formally negotiated . . . treaties."12 Keohane, by contrast, would define some of what Gilpin referred to a rules as norms of behavior that are not as specific as are rules.13 At the same time, Keohane argued that norms are less subject to change than are rules. Keohane argued further that, rules, if they are to be effective at all, must derive from "specific interstate agreements that affect the exercise of national controls."14

With respect to the creation of regimes, Keohane emphasized the significance of the application of the rationalchoice model from economic theory.15 Although Keohane recognized the role of relative power among states in the creation of regimes, he still

15Ibid., 72.contended that, through the exercise of rationalchoice, affiliation with international regimes is a voluntary action on the part of a state.16 Keohane's assessment is based on the comparison by a state of the costs and benefits associated with regime affiliation. Gilpin employed the costbenefit concept is assessing the reasons for change in international regimes.17 With respect to the creation of regimes, however, Gilpin used the concept of indifference analysis from economic theory to explain the actions of both regime leaders and members.18 In essence, indifference analysis in the instance of regime creation holds that individual states will attempt to maximize the attainment of its national objectives through the acceptance of a bundle of benefits that offer the best potential for the attainment of this goal. The indifference curve in such an instance is tricky to apply, as so many different factors must be included, which means that multiple points of indifference must be determined and coordinated. The costbenefit approach employed by Keohane is applied in a somewhat different manner from indifference analysis; however, the decisio...

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Robert Keohane and Robert Gilpin. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 11:15, August 20, 2017, from
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