With public support generally in favor of eliminating certain types of animal research, what alternatives to animal testing exist? The major alternatives are mathematical and computer modeling, the use of lower organisms, tissue culture research, and human studies. Computer simulations allow scientists to explore a wider range of situations than possible with animal experimentation (2:204). Computer simulations have been used successfully for tests such as glucose tolerance, for the instruction of students in anatomy departments, and for demonstration of "hands-on" techniques in the treatment of cardiac arrest.
According to its opponents, the animal rights movement has alienated society through its radical approach to this controversial issue. An estimated 400 groups are active in animal concerns in the United States; their combined budgets exceed $200 million (1:23). Among the most extremist of these organizations are the Animal Liberation Front (ALF), People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), Earth First, and Last Chance for Animals.
3.Goldberg, A. M. Alternatives to animals in toxicity testing. Animal Rights and Welfare 85-94. Williams, J. ed. New York: H. W. Wilson; 1991.
The sentimental argument claims that all sentient creatures possess moral rights. Watson quotes Singer's assessment of this argument: "There can be no reason--except the selfish desire to preserve the privileges of the exploiting group--for refusing to extend the basic principle of equality to members of other species. To avoid speciesism we must allow that beings which are similar in all relevant respects have a similar right to live" (8:14). The contractual argument regards nature as property. Human beings have an interest in this property because of the pleasure and utility it affords them. The contractual aspect of this argument is between human beings who have obligations to treat each other's property as though it possessed inherent rights.