norms or morals are viewed as valid, either. Thus, the director will have to use his thinking and experiences that makeup his moral code and apply it to all these criteria each time a potential patient is admitted to the ICU. In this view, should the director err in his decisions, he would be doing so because of being thoughtless not poorly intentioned or evil.
As a strategic planner for the military, my policy for torture of Iraqi prisoners to elicit information on terrorist cells would include all means of torture that would not result in maiming or death of the prisoners. While sounding harsh to civilian morals and norms, such a policy is mandated from a utilitarian perspective. A handful of men took thousands of lives and threw the New York and U.S. economy into a tailspin because of their actions on September 11, 2001. Nearly 3,000 innocent individuals were deprived their ōrightö to pursue happiness or pleasure. From the utility notion of what serves the best interests of the most numbers of people, torturing a dozen or two people in order to prevent such terrorist actions would be more than morally justified. If most individuals agree that certain actions are moral or ōrightö if they lead to the maximization of happiness and pleasure for the most people, then torturing a group of individuals to prevent minimization of happiness and pleasure for thousands or even hundreds of thousands is justified. Such moral reasoning incorporating utility has been used to take out dictators like Milosevic, responsible for untold numbers of deaths of innocent people. Such moral reasoning also applies to considering torture