. . are the maker(s secrets.( (Grove 529). Cymbals go back to the bible. Pairs of them were used in the liturgy of the first temple at Jerusalem. (ibid.) Finger cymbals are used for rhythmic and sensual clicking sounds, as in Spanish dances.
ENGLISH HORN: Woodwind family. This is the tenor of the oboe family, pitched in F, a fifth below the oboe. The English horn(s bell is characteristically pearl-shaped, with a constricted opening. Its reed is carried on a short metal crook that is curved for playing comfort. It is used today to play parts written for the oboe da caccia as in Bach(s St Matthew Passion. One of the most famous english horn players was Britisher Dennis Brain.
FLUTE: Woodwind family. The flute is an entire family of instruments including the duct flute, the vessel flute, the double duct flute, the transverse flute, the recorder and the piccolo. They are lip instruments with a wooden or metal tube and are built in three sections: a head joint with a mouth hole on one side, the body or middle joint with a principal key, the foot joint with keys for the right little finger. Their basic scale begins at D(, but keys on a foot joint extend the range down to C(, and on some flutes to B. The flute has a chromatic range upward of three octaves or more and there are flutes with four to six keys. The French instrument maker Theobald Boehm (1794-1881) invented the cylindrical flute in 1846-47 using a cylindrical tube, parabolic head and large tone holes. For some reason, flute players are called flautists rather than flutists. Nevertheless, renowned flutists include Jean-Pierre Rampal, James Galway, and Ian Anderson of the rock group Jethro Tull.
FRENCH HORN: Woodwind family. A hoop-like rather than helical instrument. Played with valves and tuning slides. It is made of several lengths of uually copper tuning twisted in circles with a large hoop-like opening at the end. It was first used in an English orchestra when Handel inc...
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