Nevertheless, Sireci, et al (2002), believe that the assessment playing field is not level in terms of either attitudes toward or knowledge of tests on the part of students and teachers alike. Lewis (1997, 1999) made the point that standardized achievement and assessment tests are designed to measure the degree to which students have mastered curriculum, internalized concepts, and advanced cognitively in terms of problem-solving and other skills.
Different tests measure different aspects of learning. The Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), for example, is designed to measure student programs against the state's standards, which include both cognitive and process standards (Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2002). The Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) is a proficiency test, described by Deubel (2002) as a test measuring more than basic skills mastery and requiring students to develop problem-solving and critical-thinking skills in a constructivist environment. The ACT and SAT are measures of student achievement in specific content areas at certain points in their academic careers (Haladyna, et al, 1998).
In discussing standardized testing and assessment, Salpeter and Foster (2000) commented that standardized tests are not necessarily a good way of measuring the things that educators w