Northern fatalities were 365,000, Confederate 260,000, or 20 percent of its free population. The North had marked advantages in this respect which told over time. It had a considerable edge in white or free manpower (22 million in 1861 v. 5.5 million) (Ayers et al. 463). The South had practically no navy. At the outset of the war it had a rich agricultural base, but progressively found itself less and less able to equip and clothe its armies as the Union naval blockade of its 3500 mile coastline and 189 harbors and ports took effect and prevented it from selling abroad its cotton crop, despite occasional successes through blockade running and smuggling.
Leadership: Presidential, Civilian and Military
Davis proved to be a better than average war leader. He made some outstanding appointments, most notably the architect of many Southern victories, especially in Virginia, General Robert E. Lee. Some of military appointees in the West, such as Braxton Bragg, turned out poorly. Davis had great difficulty maintaining Southern unity after the tide of war turned against the Confederacy in 1863-1864. According to Ayers et al., "States rights had been the great rallying cry. The government of the Confederacy, however, had to centralize power in order to protect the states" (499). Politically, it proved impossible for the Confederacy to arm, until near the end of the war, its only source of reserve, manpower, its 3.5 million black slaves (Ayers