This study went beyond other reliability studies and provided technical error of measurement statistics that gave error estimates expressed in the units of measurement of the dynamometer; these demonstrated the force levels needed to be exceeded for a second measurement if the clinician was to assume that a real difference exists between the first and next measurement (4:28).
Reference values were generated; these values can be employed to document if an individual is impaired relative to healthy subjects of the same gender and age. Correlations were found between muscle strength and sex, age, and weight. For this study, the upper force-measuring limit of the dynamometer compromised the magnitude of the reference values for knee extension strength and accuracy of regression equations for strength of that action. Data for this study showed that women in the twenties demonstrate more knee extension force as a percentage of body weight than men. This finding contradicts known relations between gender and strength; the study sample may not have represented the population accurately (4:26, 28-30).
Keating and Matyas (1996) reviewed the literature (200 articles) to explore concerns about effects of variations in subject factors and test procedures on dynamometric measurements. Factors that were found to relate to subjects were age, gender, weight, athletic background, disability, and limb dominance. Test conditions leading to varied measurements were range of movement in which values were obtained, type of contraction or movement (concentric, eccentric, isokinetic, isometric, isotonic), pretest procedures (warm-up and gravity-correction procedures, starting position, stabilization, axes alignment, lever arm length, preload, damp/ramp settings), test conditions (speed, test sequence, rest intervals, feedback), and data analysis type (9:866-822).
Manual muscle testing (MMT) was studied by Saraniti, Gleim, Melvin, and Nicholas ...
Comparison of Hand-Held Dynamometers. (2000, January 01). In LotsofEssays.com. Retrieved 14:03, November 27, 2015, from http://www.collegetermpapers.com/viewpaper/1303584901.html