Quantitative methods are used to infer causes or future events. Inferential statistics permit the findings with respect to one set of relationships to be extended to other relationships and to generalize findings and conclusions based on statistical inference.
Quantitative methods are used to enhance the decision making process. Decision theory used in conjunction with statistics provides administrators, managers, professionals, researchers, and others with knowledge about events and relationships that reduce the level of uncertainty in the data upon which decisions are based, thereby improving the quality of decisions.
Inference is among the most important of the uses made of quantitative methods. Hypothesis testing falls in the realm of inferential statistics. The basic theoretical principle upon which inferential statistics are based is probability. Probability is a number expressing the likelihood of occurrence of a specific event. For use in inferential statistics, this probability must be statistically independent. In inferential statistical applications, probability is largely a function of sampling, as well as of relationships, because it is usually not feasible, or even possible, to measure an entire population. Thus, hypothesis testing is applied to sample data in inferential statistical applications.
It is with respect to samples and their characteristics, and their use in hypothesis tes