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An Assessment on Stress Management Intervention Programs

42). In the organizational environment, as an example, stress has been implicated in the deterioration of individual performance efficiency, which in turn, affects the overall performance of the organization (Gaines and Jerimer, 1983, pp. 4453), and the phenomenon has been linked to high personnel turnover (Bowers, 1983, pp. 519). Negative stress has been linked to impaired productivity among all employee groups (Francis and Milburn, 1990, p. 74).

Within an organizational environment, stress may be especially debilitating when it affects managerial personnel (Naylor, Pritchard, and Ilgen, 1994, p. 31). When adverse stressrelated outcomes occur with respect to managerial personnel, negative effects tend to be more widespread within an organization than is the case when other employee groups are affected (Levitt, 1991, p. 42). Typically, this situation occurs because managers influence a wider span of organizational activities than do other employee groups. With other employee groups, stress outcomes for the organization are more likely to be restricted to specific task areas or to narrow ranges of organizational activity (Levitt, 1991, p. 43).

Taiwan, Its Economy, and Managerial Stress

Taiwan is one of the world's most rapidly developing economies (The World Bank, 1994, p. 238). Taiwan pursued economic growth in the 1970s and 1980s primarily through the development of its export trade, and the country continues this approach in the early1990s (Hunter, 1994, p. 75). While Taiwan sought external capital for its economic development during this time period, the country typically dissuaded direct foreign investment (Anderson, 1990, pp. 5867). In addition to dissuading direct foreign investment, Taiwan also, to a great extent, closed its domestic markets to foreign manufacturers (Boyd, 1994, p. 111). The dissuading of direct foreign investment, the relatively closed domestic markets, and the growth of the Taiwanese econ...

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