They note that many theorists focus on one or the other of these areas, generally divided into categories of traits, motivation, and values, but that all of them are relevant to an understanding of management and management practice.
The fundamental elements of management, according to them, involved the use of three basic categories of skills. These skills are conceptual skills, or the skills involved with planning and creating the vision for the organization; technical skills, or involvement with establishing and reaching technical objectives within the organization; and people skills, which involves working with all levels within the organization in order to effectively and efficiently fulfill the organization's mission.
One way of looking at management is to describe management by looking at the different roles that managers must fill in order to be effective. Mintzberg (1973) examined much of the available literature of the time and developed a schema that focused on the specific activities that managers perform for their organizations. There were ten major roles and each manager was assumed to fill each of these roles at some point in time, although the relative amount of time devoted to each role varied between managers depending upon their situation. Thus, the manager at lower levels in the hierarchy would fill the leader role, for example, less frequently than would the manager at upper levels of the hierarchy, alt