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Different Conceptualizations of Management

The roles that he developed included all the major activities and characteristics that he identified through his research. These roles include the figurehead role, leader role, liaison role, monitor role, disseminator role, spokesperson role, entrepreneur role, disturbancehandler role, resourceallocator role, and negotiator role.

The figurehead role, for example, involves managers in formal positions within the organization that are largely ceremonial, such as signing certain documents, presenting gold watches, meeting visitors, etc. On the other hand, the monitor role is much more laborintensive and involves receiving information from a variety of sources in order to keep track of processes and problems within the organization.

In addition, Mintzberg (1973) associated four major items which are characteristic to management, although not unique to manager behavior. These he described as an intense work pace, a wide variety of activities, action orientation, and communication media usage. In other words, managers tend to be more involved in action than reflection, engage in considerable communication with all levels of staff, perform a wide variety of activities that generally are of short duration individually, and work long hours without a break, often taking work home with them.

While the last perspective focused on the roles and characteristics of managers in management, the work of Peters and Waterman focused on excellence in the organization based on several principles or values they felt were essential to good management. These basic principles include (1) a bias for action (similar to Mintzberg's focus on action orientation), (2) staying close to the customer, (3) autonomy and entrepreneurship, (4) productivity through people, (5) handson, valuedriven management, (6) sticking to the knitting, (7) simple form, lean staff, and, (8) simultaneous loosetight properties.

The basic focus of the Peters and Waterm...

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Different Conceptualizations of Management. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 03:56, August 23, 2017, from
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