Construct validity is the degree to which a measure relates to other variables as expected within a system of theoretical relationships. A field study was used in the research reported in the critiqued article to assess the construct validity of the measurement scales developed.
Concurrent validity refers to the extent to which items comprising a scale behave as if they are measuring the same variable. Correlation analysis was used in the study reported in the critiqued article to measure concurrent validity.
Variance is critiqued in two contexts. These contexts are error and method.
Error variance, also referred to as sampling error, reflects the influence of chance in the selection of sample members. In theory, error variance refers only to random fluctuations. A small standard error of the estimate would indicate that error variance was adequately accounted for in the research reported in the critiqued article; however, such information was not included in the article.
Method variance refers to the variation in measures due to influences, known or unknown, that cause scores to tend toward one direction rather than another. No method variance will be present in a sample that accurately reflects the population bing measured. While the critiqued article identifies samples involved in the reported research, no information is provided on the sample selection process; therefore, the effectiveness of the