The Orem's Nursing Theory
Orem (cited in Bartle, 1991, p. 35) defines self-care as "an adult's continuous contribution to his or her own continued existence, health and well-being" (Bartle, 1991, p. 35). The Orem model contains three self-care requisites describing those internal and external conditions that both maintain human structure and function, and support human development and maturation. They include the following: (1) universal; (2) developmental; and (3) health-deviation. Universal self-care requisites maintain those general processes that are essential to life. Hence, they comprise such things as the need for air, water, and food. Moreover, they include the care associated with the elimination process. Universal self-care requisites may also involve the need for various balances (e.g., the balance between activity and rest, or between solitude and social interaction). They may also relate to the need for protection from hazards. Overall, the universal requisites should promote human "functioning and development within social groups" in accord with a person's "potential limitations and the desire to be normal" (Bartle, 1991, p. 35). In contrast, developmental self-care requisites involve those conditions that influence a person's growth and maturation. These may include both physical and psychological human needs from intra-uterine life to full adult maturation. Lastly, health-de

 
 
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