Fox's central teachings emphasized the concept of the "Christ within" each human being, the capacity of each person to receive an immediate, individual divine revelation, or "inner light."
The organization soon became a religious group, with roots in the Anabaptists (whose belief in adult baptisms, "baptizing again," emphasized individual choice) and the Independents. The Children of the Light accepted lay leadership, rather than leadership from priests, as well as pacifism, independent congregations, and complete separation of church and state.
They soon became known as the Society of Friends but were called Quakers by their opponents, as a derisive comment on the trembling state to which witnessing the Inner Light sometimes brought them. The first complete discussion of the concept of Inner Light appeared in Robert Barclay's An Apology for the True Christian Divinity, as the Same Is Held Forth and Preached by the People Called in Scorn Quakers, published in 1678. This book is considered the greatest Quaker work of theology.
The Quakers were among many religious groups during the Restoration who were forced to flee England in their quest for the freedom to pursue their beliefs. Quakers found refuge in Rhode Island and Pennsylvania, after facing additional persecution in the more restricted atmosphere of Massachusetts.
Jamestown in Virginia was the first permanent English settlement founded in America. It was named for James I, the monarch who made its charter possible. The town was established in May, 1607, by a small group of colonists, led by Captain Christopher Newport. Newport had been hired by the London Company to lead a colonizing expedition to the Americas. He eventually brought a number of shiploads of colonists to Jamestown, replenishing the population and providing much-needed supplies.
The London Company, also known as the Virginia Company (in honor of the recently deceased Queen Elizabeth, the Vi...
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