Butler (2000) calls such nation's actions a "shocking change of heart" and feels it led to ineffectual efforts by the United Nations Security Council to force compliance on Hussein. Even though Security Council members maintained a unanimous voice against Iraq's proposal to eject United States members of the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM), Butler feels that it was too little, too late. The United Nations failed in its efforts because it allowed Hussein to carry out a clandestine build up of weapons of mass destruction. Butler (2000) maintains in a warning that represents prognostication, "The failure of the task of disarming Saddam and the politics on which it has rested...constitutes a serious crisis in global security" (Introduction).
The Generals' War makes a case that the ending of the first Gulf War is most responsible for the current crisis in the Persian Gulf. Gordon (1996) entitles his first chapter "War by Miscalculation" and in general his thesis is that the decisions made about how to wage the war and what to do at its conclusion are responsible for fueling contemporary events in the region. Gordon discusses how taking out Baghdad and Hussein would have eroded the coalition forces. So, too, he maintains that would the taking out the regime at that time would have left Iraq vulnerable to the Kurds, Shiites and other countries. Without an established plan for Iraq when the war was over and in light of policy that did not attempt to take out Baghdad, all that was left behind was an angry and more determined Hussein and Iraq. This fact, coupled with flawed United Nations Security Council efforts, left little room for any other course of events to transpire than the ones currently underway. Gordon does not place all of the blame on the Bush Administration or the first Gulf War. He maintains that such events were anticipat