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Distinct Difference Between Imperialism and Colonialism

It is through the effort to recapture the self and to scrutinize the self, it is through the last tension of their freedom that men will be able to create the ideal conditions of existence for a human world. Superiority? Inferiority? Why not the quite simple attempt to touch the other (Fanon, 1967, 231).

The accounts of such tortures in the Congo resulted in the creation of the Congo Reform Association (CRA) in 1904. The CRA fought for international intervention in light of the horrors that were routinely occurring in the Congo. As such international support grew to remove King Leopold from power over the Congo Free State. In 1908 Belgium annexed the Congo Free State, removed Leopold from control, and maintain the Belgian Congo as a colony until 1960. Shortly after this riots caused Belgium to cede independence to the Congo. Patrice Lumumba became the nation's first prime minister, but was ousted from office days later in a military coup led by Joseph Mobutu (History, 1993, 1). Lumumba was eventually assassinated as Mobutu began a process of instituting democratic reforms. Upon assuming control he referred to the nation's history as one of 'chaos, disorder, negligence, and incompetence' (History, 1993, 1). By the mid-1970s, the Republic of Congo had one political party, a new constitution, and its social and political influence were growing.

Hochschild (1999) estimated that somewhere between 5 and 10 million Congolese died as a result of King Leopold's policies in the Congo. While the 1960s brought about major state political and economic reforms, the period before that and after Leopold was still one of intense exploitation resulting in a corrupt, depleted, and demoralized state. As Rashad (2003) maintains, 'It is quite apparent that the overall effect of colonialism on Africa was immensely deleterious. The European powers desired and needed slaves, ivory, ports, raw materials, and new markets for European finishe...

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