What are the effects, if any, of sociodemographic variables (e.g., age, gender, etc.) on sadomasochistic tendencies and behaviors in intimate relationships?
Sadism and Masochism in the Intimate Relationship
Etiology and Types of S-M Behavioral Manifestations
One of the behaviors that has been associated with sadomasochistic tendencies as they related to intimate relationships has been a pattern of involvement in intimate relationships where one is repeatedly emotionally abused and/or rejected. Bonime (1995) has viewed this proclivity as a sadomasochistic pattern, and offered an etiological framework for understanding the pattern.
Specifically, it is noted that the etiological roots of both full-blown sadomasochistic disorders and this pattern of repeated rejection in intimate relationships arises from low self-esteem and that develops in a childhood context of inadequate loving nurturance. Bonime (1995) further states that this low self-esteem is maintained by a competitive social milieu which results in personality traits and patterns which are diffusely competitive.
The competitive activity is often associated unawarely with cynicism...The gratification of victory substitutes for the gratifications of intimacy and growth, but is relatively brief, and although it produces some self acceptance, it is never enough to overcome the basic low feeling about oneself. (Bonime, 19