"2 With Manhattan Project underway, it was unlikely that one man, even a President, could have stopped it. Research and development had cost $2 billion, an unprecedented sum for a single military or civilian purpose, and scientists and military leaders were eager to use the product.
At the beginning of 1942, the responsibilities of the Metallurgical Laboratory at Chicago originally included a preliminary study of the physics of the atomic bomb. In that same year, G. Breit got various laboratories started on the experimental study of problems that had to be solved before progress could be made on bomb design. J. R. Oppenheimer of the University of California gathered a group together in the summer of 1942, and coordinated further theoretical investigation in this experimental work. By the end of the summer, General L. R. Groves took charge of the entire project, after it was decided to expand the work considerably, and to set up a separate laboratory. In the choice of a site for this atomic-bomb laboratory, the all-important considerations were secrecy and safety. It was therefore decided to establish the laboratory in an isolated location, and to sever unnecessary connection with the outside world. By November 1942, a site had been chosen at Los Alamos, New Mexico, J.R. Oppenheimer would be the director of the laboratory, and it would be financed under a contract b