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Caring as a Nursing Metaparadigms

601) proposed that "comfort is a basic human need pursued by all human beings," and Watson saw caring as "an intersubjective human process [that] is the moral ideal of nursing." Leininger "theorized that 'care is the essence of nursing and the central, dominant, and unifying focus of nursing'" (Malinowski & Stamler, 2002, p. 603). Spangler (1991, as cited in Malinowski & Stamler, 2002, p. 603) employed the ethnonursing method, identifying that "Philippine nurses value patients' physical comfort as an important aspect of nursing care. Securing comfort for their patients is a means of developing relationships." Parse's theory includes caring in the form of "true presence with the client with the intent to promote health and quality of life from the person's perspective. It does not just treat persons as patients needing medical attention, but views them as unique beings" (Wu, 2008, p. 6).

Rosenbaum (1986, p. 413) synthesizes the concepts of care and caring as defined by Orem and Leininger, noting that caring can be both an attitude and an assumption of responsibility. Caring as an attitude is evidenced by the expression of affection, anxiety, caution, concern, and interest for the patient, while caring as the action of taking responsibility is expressed through assistance, comfort, precaution, protection, and the support of self-actualization (Rosenbaum, 1986, p. 413). Orem sees care as "a general term which i


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