Caring as a Nursing Metaparadigms
Caring as an attitude is evidenced by the expression of affection, anxiety, caution, concern, and interest for the patient, while caring as the action of taking responsibility is expressed through assistance, comfort, precaution, protection, and the support of self-actualization (Rosenbaum, 1986, p. 413). Orem sees care as "a general term which includes the commonalities of interpersonal, helping and regulation," and not necessarily something restricted just to nursing (Rosenbaum, 1986, p. 413). What Orem sees as unique to nursing is the providing of self-care, which is the cornerstone of her theory (Rosenbaum, 1986, p. 413). With self-care envisioned by Orem as "the production of actions directed to self or to the environment in order to regulate one's functioning in the interests of one's life, integrated functioning, and well-being," it is clear that she considers patient care something that the patient participates in (Rosenbaum, 1986, p. 413). Leininger, on the other hand, distinguishes between "care" as a noun and "caring" as a verb, viewing care as "assistive, supportive, or facilitative phenomena toward or for another individual or group with evident or anticipate needs to ameliorate or improve a human condition or lifeway" and caring as "the actions made to assist, support, or facilitate another individual or group with evident or anticipated needs to ameliorate or improve a human condition or lifeway" (Rosenbaum, 1986, p. 414). For Leininger, care and caring are a focal point of her theory, and she sees them not just as part of the nurse's job but in the larger context as "essential for growth, development, and survival" (Rosenbaum, 1986, p. 414). Moreover, Leininger recognizes that care is a generic commodity that is common to all human beings, although she suggests that different cultures may provide it differently (Rosenbaum, 1986, p. 414). She emphasizes the importance of care and caring in nursing and states that ...
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