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Depending upon the character of individual managers the applications of different types of power or a combination of both types of power may be appropriate.

It is useful, therefore, to define overt and unobtrusive power. Overt power use "refers to the ablity to secure preferred outcomes in the face of competition and conflict among declared opponents" (Hardy, 1985, 388). Within organizations, 5overt power derives from an ability to "control . . . scarce resources and resource dependencies" (Hardy, 1985, 396). Unobtrusive power, by contrast to overt power, refers to the ability to secure preferred outcomes by preventing conflict from arising. Within organizations, unobtrusive power is "derived hegemonic and symbolic sources which are brought into play to legitimize outcomes . . . " (Hardy, 1985, 396).

The literature indicates that a variety of factors may be implicated in the application of power within organizations by managers. The quality and style of organizational leadership

may be a major cause of organizational conflict, and, in turn, is directly related to the management of such conflict.Leadership is often implicated in the development of organizational conflict, when the style is either highly authoritarian or indifferent.

Motivation is also often implicated in the development of organizational conflict, and in the effective application of power within organizations. While motivation is the product of a complex structure of interrelationships within an organization, leadership behaviors and human resources management policies are of particular significance.

Both leadership behaviors and motivations within organizations exert significant impacts on the quality of superiorsubordinate relationships within an organization. Within anorganization, superiorsubordinate relationships are integral to the use of power. Superiorsubordinate relationships within an organization are oft...

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