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Journalist Peter Goldman

Two general wings of AfricanAmerican protest emerged, and they reflected in many ways the older distinction between field slaves and house slaves back on the plantation: field slaves did the hard work and were shut out from any kind of civilized interaction with whites while the house slaves took care of household chores, brought up the white children, greeted guests, and were expected to express the polite civility of the household. House slaves were fed and clothed better than field slaves and had to learn how to speak reasonably well, even if they were not educated for literacy (Cone, 1991, p. 18-21).

The general outlines of this distinction continued after slavery as a small contingent of middleclass AfricanAmericans gained better economic and educational status, while a larger group remained in relative poverty and illiteracy. The rising aspirations of AfricanAmericans came as a consequence of the two world wars, which were major events in American race relations; AfricanAmerican soldiers fought in both and were much less willing to accept injustice at home after risking their lives for their nation. This was especially true after WWII, where AfricanAmericans helped fight against Hitler's vicious and psychotic brand of racism. After that, American racism seemed blatantly contradictory and entirely unjust. Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X were each the outstanding leader of their generation of these two wings of the African-American com


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