What we do need, however, is a baseline determinant. This would mean that each of the five group members (M-1 through M-5) would be analyzed in terms of their actual arrivals. We also know from the case that one of the leaders of the group tends to spend a lot of time getting the group into trouble.
One way to determine a benchmark behavior would be to study more carefully the behavior of that person, which we can call N-? since we don't know who he or she is. We could achieve this by having a meeting with the group and discussing the arrival problem, and establishing the exact starting time when work begins. If everyone is coming in, on the average, 10 minutes late, there should be an arrival time worked in.
C) Functional Analysis of the Behavior
A functional analysis of the behavior is done by measuring the antecedents (what came before) with the consequences (what came after) concerning the behavior modification.
Sometimes called "operant conditioning," the functional analysis (function implying process) measures the effectiveness of the behavior modification. Let's assume that I was able to hold the meeting and convince the group of the urgent need for the earlier arrival. That meeting would have to be considered the initial starting point of the function, with the performance before (the lateness) used as a benchmark for improvement.
D) Development of an Intervention Strategy
If the above steps are satisfactory, then we can at least have an idea of who the problem members are, or what the bigger problem is. It is only at that time that an intervention strategy (punishment, rewards, termination training and so on) can be implemented.
In this particular case, I would follow the advice of Kilpatrick and other experts in feedback and loop control and analysis point out that any feedback is good feedback (Kilpatrick 1994 1996) and arrange a meeting where I would outline the proble