But in spite of variability in meaning "an urban area is usually defined as an area where non-agricultural production sectors (manufacturing and service) and their workers are concentrated. In addition, a city usually has a legal status granted by the national or provincial government and is associated with specific administrative or local government structures" (www-scf.usc.edu).
Cities are usually contrasted with the agricultural-based rural areas surrounding them, but one of the peculiarities of Lisbon is that there seem to be far more garden plots and small farms within the greater metropolitan area of Lisbon than in other urban areas - many of them illegal, but officially tolerated for generations.
The Twentieth Century was marked by a mass influx of poor, uneducated, and mostly illiterate peasants streaming into the main urban areas of their respective countries in uncontrollable droves. This was as true in Johannesburg, South Africa as in Sao Paulo, Brazil; in Bangkok, Thailand as in Los Angeles, California; and in Lisbon, Portugal as in Buenos Aires. The reasons are simple. Whereas most economies throughout the world were primarily agricultural until the Industrial Revolution of the 18th century, the advent of manufacturing technology changed the fundamental balance of economic power between urban areas and the rural agricultural economies.
And in the late 20th century a new social, cultural, technological, and economic force was added to the mix: globalization, which can be seen in part as the successful attempt by capital to exploit and maintain world poverty for its benefit by paying the lowest wages possible to its workers, and thereby deriving a competitive advantage over its competitors.
In order to be profitable the radical transformation of agriculture that took place first in the United States required a great deal of capital, huge land holdings, total mechanization of production, highly technological farmi...
Urbanization in Lisbon Portugal. (1969, December 31). In LotsofEssays.com. Retrieved 12:48, May 06, 2016, from http://www.collegetermpapers.com/viewpaper/1303778897.html