Urbanization in Lisbon Portugal
In 1147 King Alfonso of Portugal expelled the Moors, with the help of Christian Crusaders. During the Age of Discovery (1300 1500) Portuguese sea-faring explorers were the boldest of the Europeans, being the first to circumnavigate the coast of Africa, eventually establishing a vast empire that stretched from India to Africa to the Americas.

As the capital of Portugal this city was built on the prosperity that came from to it from foreign possessions. But like Spain, Portugal was unable to keep up with the new economic vitality of Northern Europe, and by the 20th century it had lost its most important colonies to other powers. It also was slow to keep up with the Industrial Revolution, and by the 1950's was a relatively poor backwater of Europe, surviving mainly on the export of agricultural commodities like "canned fish, raw and manufactured cork, cotton textiles, and wine" (countrystudies.us).

In the 1970's a number of factors coincided to change the conservative city with the narrow streets that had been laid out in a grid pattern by the Marques de Pombal following the 1755 earthquake that destroyed 85% of the city (en.wikipedia.org). From 1928 to 1968 Antonio de Olivieria Salazar ruled Portugal with an iron hand, emulating his fellow dictator Francisco Franco across the mountains in Spain in his statist control of political and economic activity for the benefit of the oligarchy.

At this time armed resistance by guerrillas in Portugal's African colonies

 
 
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    Some topics in this essay  
 
    Population Age | Industrial Revolution | Ireland Portugal | Mozambique Guinea | South Africa | North American | Southern Californians | Lisbon Portugal | Portugal DEMOGRAPHY | Egypt Greece | urban population | population growth | growth rate % | rural population | rate % | population 000s | total population | growth rate | rate % | % | population growth rate | life expectancy birth | population growth rates | lisbon portugal | industrial revolution |  
   
 
 
 
   
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