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Energy in the 21st Century

39). When technology is considered within the context of physical science, it is typically viewed as the application of physical science and engineering technology to human endeavors. This concept emphasizes device effects and procedures. When technology is conceptualized within the context of the behavioral sciences, it is viewed as the application of language and linguistics, communications, cybernetics, and psychometrics to human endeavors. The behavioral science concept of technology incorporates applications of engineering research (particularly human factors engineering), logistics related to the effective use of physical resources, and information science. Technology, thus, is the "conscious invention of ways of acting on the material world to meet our needs" (Levins, 1986, p. 12).

Innovation, in an economic context, is the introduction of new products, or production processes. Innovation, thus, is technological change. Technological change may involve improvements to non-human resources or new knowledge about how to combine resources (Ekelund & Hebert, 1993).

Technology is one of the means by which productivity may be increased within an economy, an industry, or an organization. The introduction of new technology into industries tends to lower production costs in those industries, over the long-term. Technology, thus, is indispensable with res


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