Arguments over the meaning of "Israelite" make it difficult to assess the nature of any of the models, and it is especially difficult to cite archaeological evidence because the typology of the period creates significant preliminary cultural material parameters proving to be as complex and ambiguous as the biblical parameters themselves (Gottwald 268-269).
The Immigration Model was derived from a critical study of the Hebrew Bible which succeeded in laying bare elements of the biblical tradition. This model theorized a long, complicated process of peaceful infiltration, uneven amalgamation with local peoples, and finally a military-political triumph achieved only in the time of David. This is a peaceful image of the slow takeover of the region by the immigrant group, and the cultural and religious separation between Canaanites and Israelites is seen as initially a difference between resident peoples and pastoral nomads and in some cases as the difference between politically established people and social drifters. This model stresses the normalcy of bedouin penetration into settled areas, and the earliest Israelites are conceived as seasonal or seminomads who would become numerous only over time and also who would only in time become coordinated enough to threaten the Canaanites. There are different forms of the model. One holds that the Israelites entered empty spaces between the widely scattered highland Canaanite cities where the Israelites fell outside the jurisdiction of the city-states and developed for some time without significant contact with their agricultural and urban neighbors. Other theories postulate more contact and treaty relations between the two parties and even measurable intermixing of the two populations (Gottwald 270).
This "peaceful infiltration" model was developed by German archaeologists as early as the 1920s and 1930s. The theory was based on an advance beyond the earlier, strictly literary crit...
History of Israel. (1969, December 31). In LotsofEssays.com. Retrieved 10:14, March 23, 2017, from http://www.collegetermpapers.com/viewpaper/1303794899.html