14). Critical thinking, to be effective, depends in large part on the availability of high quality information. Advances in information technology can provide high quality information in a timely manner to organizational managers.
The purpose of this study is to identify the processes for the effective integration of advances in information technology and the strategic management process. As these processes will tend to vary according to industries and organizations, this study investigates the issues involved through the study of diverse case examples of the actual integration of advances in information technology and the strategic management process. The "Methodology" section of this chapter identifies the cases analyzed.
Information Technology: Development Over Time
Technology is society's pool of applied knowledge concerning how goods and services can be produced by managers, workers, engineers, scientists, and craftspeople, using land and capital. Innovation, in an economic context, is the introduction of new products, or processes. Productivity is defined as a measure of the rate at which output flows from the use of given amounts of the factors of production (Miller, 1996).
When technology is considered within the context of physical science, it is typically viewed as the application of physical sci