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B.F. Skinner"Behaviorism"

Behavior modification involves these behavioral techniques to change behaviors (Mills & Leendert, 1999). Wyatt (2001) pointed out that Skinner's behaviorism includes concepts such as individual and genetic influences and past and present environments, which affect the appeal and probability of a behavior.

Freud differed from Skinner with a focus on the unconscious, libido, and psychosexual stages of development rather than a focus on operant conditioning. For Freud, the unconscious is the source of motivation and includes that which is not easily accessible to the conscious. Human behavior is motivated by life and death instincts and drives and the life instinct is called libido. The id, ego, and superego are a part of Freud's system, with the id being driven by the pleasure principle and underlying instincts, the ego being involved in problem-solving and id-control activities, and the superego providing the conscience. Since the sex drive is the most important motivating force, psychosexual stages of development are presented during which the individual may experience a trauma, which results in an interruption of growth and development. When this occurs the individual remains at the interrupted level and is faced with ongoing and related impulses. Defense mechanisms develop to cope with anxiety or threats to the ego when id impulses threaten to be overwhelming. Personality is developed based on experiences growing up to includ


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