Because many people were reluctant to spend the penny or two necessary to purchase a newspaper, posters were also utilized (Kaufman, 1987, p. 12). Kaufman argues the Industrial Revolution provided the major impetus for the growth of the advertising business during the nineteenth century throughout Europe and the colonies. As a result of the increased production during the Revolution, many local manufacturers discovered their ability to produce far exceeded the ability of the local markets to consume (Kaufman, 1987, p. 12). However, many of these early posters reflect the failure of the business and scholarly establishment to define a marketing concept. For example, a poster for "Mr. Suchard's Chocolat" consisted of nothing more than three children holding boxes of his chocolates. Apparently, he expected that his name along would induce people to buy his brand (Kaufman, 1987, p. 13).
Marketing Practices by Business Type
Marketing practices and the development of specific advertising strategies occurred during the latter half of the nineteenth century. Before such time, the traditional method of merchandising consisted of a manufacturer who sold his products to the retailer through a middleman or wholesaler. The wholesaler thus had a great deal of power to determine what goods were bought and sold depending on what inventory he chose to stock. The similarities in the evolution of marketing practices in th