The growth of medicine advertising differed however. The years between the end of the Civil War and the beginning of the twentieth century were marked by the growth of drug and patent medicine advertising (Kaufman, 1987, p. 13). For the most part, these advertisements appeared in newspapers because magazines did not as yet accept advertising. The pharmaceutical trade supplied many producers and involved the marketing of simple standard items (Porter & Livesay, 1971, p. 219). Thus, the middleman was a significant element of the marketing of such goods. However, the turn of the century witnessed the erosion of the middleman's importance due to the impact of national advertising (Porter & Livesay, 1971, p. 224). Once the manufacturer went over the middleman's head direct to the consumer via advertising, the middleman became more a distributive mechanism that only supplied goods demanded by the public as the result of that advertising rather than the force that generated the demand.
Advertising During the Nineteenth Century
Interest in advertising increased around 1900 due to the increased need for promotional stimulus as buyers' markets began to replace sellers' markets and the application of new psychological findings to consumer motivation in the evolving marketing situation (Bartels, 1970, p. 34). Psychologists and businessmen now contributed to the advertising literature of the period. For example, believing psychology to be the only stable foundation for a theory of advertising, W.D. Scott introduced into advertising such concepts as attention, association of ideas, suggestion, fusion, perception, apperception, illusions, and mental imagery (Bartels, 1970, p. 34).
Interest by the psychological and business communities reflected in the first widespread attempts by manufacturers to reach a mass audience through national media at the turn of the century (Porter & Livesay, 1971, p. 223). The success in the 1890s of the l...
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