The pupil-teacher ratio at the primary level is 36:1, the ratio at the secondary level is approximately 16:1 (p. 346). The most recent data indicates that about 9 percent of Ecuador's elementary teaching staff lacked full certification (p. 345).
Egginton, Everett and DeBevoise, Wynn. (1987). Ecuador. World Education Encyclopedia. Ed. George Thomas Kurian. New York: Facts on File.
The appropriate testing and placement of Spanish-speaking children such as Ecuadorian immigrants requires a comprehensive assessment system. This system must include teachers, administrators, counselors, and parents. The comprehensive assessment would be obtained from observational data, other data available, language dominance, educational assessment data, sensory-motor and/or psycholinguistic data, adaptive behavior data, medical and/or development data, personality assessment data (including self-report), and intellectual assessment data (Samuda, 1983, p. 182). In a comprehensive assessment, psychological assessment and special education should be the last options considered.
Bilingualism in Ecuador promotes an intercultural exchange between the Spanish language and the indigenous Quechua language. This placing of language in an intercultural context received widespread implementation by the Ecuadorian government in 1983. An article to the Ecuadorian Constitution was approved which provided that native languages would be the first languages of education in areas with predominantly indigenous populations. The article further provided that, in these indigenous areas, Spanish would be used as a second language or language of intercultural communication.