In contrast, the United States does not have a similar term to describe persons who are social products of two or more categories. A person takes the racial identity of one or the other parent. For example, a person with mixed black and white parentage is always considered black.
The Ecuadorian mestizo groups speak either Spanish or Quechua. Although Spanish is dominant, both are considered the national language of Ecuador. Further, "the inclusive term for national identity (Ecuatoriano) does not correspond to any of the terms designating the narrower ethnic identities" (Minaya-Rowe, 1980, p. 16). In the United States, the situation is quite different. The term "American" implies both national identity and "that ethnic category of citizens who are tokens of the identity, i.e., not members of any other of the many 'foreign' ethnic groups" (p. 15). English, the national language of the United States, is also considered the language identity of the socially-dominant population group.
Since English is the national language in the United States, the aim of education programs is to produce a nation of monolingual speakers. Although bilingual education programs exist in America, most perceive bilingualism as a transitional state. Teachers aim at taking monolingual students through a transition to bilingualism with the ultimate goal of creating a monolingual community. Therefore, bilingual education in the United States pr