Esposito, J. L. (1999). The Islamic threat: Myth or reality? New York: Oxford University Press.
The cleavage of feminist perspective seems elusive of resolution, complicated as it has become by what seem to be "extrafeminist" sociopolitical ideologies that are more or less socially liberal or conservative in the traditional sense. Even so, it is difficult not to conclude that feminist critique has passed from diffident politesse to assertiveness between 1792 and the 21st century. Where it will lead remains to be seen.
Said, E. W. (1993). Culture and imperialism. New York: Knopf/Random House.
Nor was that all. Hostile critics of feminism hold that feminism argues not for parity but for partiality, irrespective of exposure of patriarchy and hierarchy: "If reversing the gender hierarchy is not the objective, why is there such a significant emphasis on the attributes of female thinking?" (Hayman & Levit, 1994, p. 349). In her commentary on evidence of a wave of popular anti-feminism, Faludi argues that the successes of feminist advocacy fostered a "highly effective, often insidious campaign to discredit its goals, distort its message and make women question whether they really want equality after all" (Gibbs & Attinger, 1992, pp. 51-2). There has also been critique from those who have been historically on the socioeconomic margins. Consider Walker's four-part definition of womanism: outrageous or willful, grown-up behavior by feminists of color; women loving women (sexually or not), and "committed to survival and wholeness of entire people, male and female"; loving of people (Folk), herself, food, spirit, music, etc. Accordingly, "womanist is to feminist as purple to lavender" (Walker, cited by Cannon, 1988, p. 22). In the black womanist view, oppression is the basic fact of life for black women and is to be aggressively opposed. Black womanist ethics filters established ethical principles through black women's "facticity of life" as the experience of receiving do