Freud, S. (1961). Civilization and its discontents. J. Strachy (Trans.). New York: W.W. Norton.
Historically, police departments are run like military organizations, with hierarchically defined roles and ranks dominating the bureaucratic structure. Whatever negative views one may have of organizational structures like these, one must also acknowledge that, in a life-or-death situation, the ability to respond to and execute orders based on the authority of and trust in the superior is essential. The need for the public trust to be respected is another aspect of this, and that is why police as a group are subject to so many criminally/legally enforceable regulations regarding treatment of suspects, members of the public, and so on. Having said that, one seems hard put to endorsing another style of leadership as having potential to transform the organization of a police department. Yet that does seem to be a possibility, at least in theory, not because the command-and-control structure should be abandoned in the field and in the context of law enforcement's role in the criminal justice system; it should not be abandoned. However, that entire environment belongs to a concept of leadership that has to do with crisis control, public safety, and survival. Within the organizational environment, as it were behind the scenes of the police department that most of the public is likely to encounter, hierarchical management styles can be counterproductive to morale. Where the stakes do not touch public-safety issues and legal requirements, therefore, some attention to the human factor as exemplified in democratic-style leadership seems in order.
Kets de Vries, M. F. R. (1993). Leaders, fools, and impostors: Essays on the psychology of leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
After World War II, influential management philosophy shifted toward ideas of democratic-style leadership with the work of W. Edwards Deming, whose famous Fourteen Points of management included calls for