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Four Leadership Models

80-81), and ostensibly friendly and engaged but really emotionally disconnected (p. 81ff) can disrupt the psychological continuity of organizations. Accordingly, for leadership (organizational) goals to be realized, "leaders have to do more than create, out of their inner theater, a vision of the future that is in tune with the external environment" (p. 175). There must be constant interplay, constant scrutiny, not only of organizational behavior and performance but also of the behavior and performance of management personnel in the context of unfolding circumstances. To put it another way, if it is true that followers create leaders, it is also true that leaders who ignore follower and/or real-world cues may imperil themselves and their organization, moving instead toward abuse of power and, in the worst cases, pathological behavior (p. 180).

It is important to recognize that an equivalence between leadership, power, and authority--irrespective of psychological subtlety--has a strong pedigree in leadership theory. That would help explain why Kets de Vries's approach to leadership as a controlling organizational idea is so hostile. The autocratic style of leadership has been linked to the so-called scientific management methods envisioned by Frederick Taylor, who in the early part of the 20th century was influential in devising a strategy of workplace behavior meant to eliminate uncertainty and chaos in the workplace. Problems that emerged were predictable, however, because managers who were certain and scientifically organized tended to leave employees out of the policy-implementation equation. Supposedly, scientific management would eliminate the adversary relationship between labor and management. Instead, "science, the impartial arbiter, would decide" (Kanigel, 1996, p. 45). Yet "science" inevitably meant top-down, hierarchical management practices: "Taylor's experts and engineers did the thinking, while you were consigned to min...

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Four Leadership Models. (1969, December 31). In Retrieved 18:36, July 20, 2017, from
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