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e., it is much better to live life, any life, than the alternative, death. Hemingway’s hero accepts as readily as the Greek hero the meaninglessness of existence, the existential nada of it all. He, too, also accepts the fact that there is no escape as a human being from being born, suffering, and dying. While both the Greek tragic hero and the modern tragic Hemingway hero must exhibit endurance in the face of this existential dilemma, while both must exhibit grace under pressure during the struggles, and while both must rise above this dilemma to live fully, the Hemingway tragic hero does not embrace the concept that life is suffering and death as readily as the Greeks. Instead, the Hemingway hero experiences terror at this existential reality and often seeks refuge or escape, though it is only temporary, in sex, alcohol, and, most importantly, action. Both of these constructs of heroism, however, are life affirming. The Hemingway hero is only a hero when he confronts this terror and lives actively despite its slings and arrows. The Greek hero sees overcoming this fact of existence as taking joy in the life force as an inexhaustible force despite it. As Nietzsche said of the Greek tragedy heroic ideal in Twilight of the Idols:

Tragedy is so far from proving anything about the pessimism of the Hellenes, in Schopenhauer’s sense, that it may, on the contrary, be considered its decisive repudiation and counter-insistance. Saying Yes to life even in its strangest and


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